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了解记忆,温故知新

 2018/11/9 8:57:21 《最新论文》 作者:npj Science of Learning 我有话说(0人评论) 字体大小:+

论文标题:Integrating educational knowledge: reactivation of prior knowledge during educational learning enhances memory integration

期刊:npj Science of Learning

作者:Marlieke Tina Renée van Kesteren, Lydia Krabbendam, Martijn Meeter

发表时间:2018/06/25

数字识别码: 10.1038/s41539-018-0027-8

原文链接:https://www.nature.com/articles/s41539-018-0027-8

最近在npj Science of Learning期刊上发表的文章“Integrating educational knowledge: reactivation of prior knowledge during educational learning enhances memory integration”关注了关于如何利用记忆来增强学习。本文的作者--来自荷兰阿姆斯特丹自由大学的研究人员对此给出了如下解答。

问:您开展这个研究的主要目的是什么?为什么要探讨这个话题?

答:我过去主要研究为什么已有的知识能对学习记忆以及相关大脑事件产生有利的影响,而现在我很想知道如何才能最好地利用已有的知识来增强我们的学习。不管是从认知还是神经科学的角度,人们对此都知之甚少。

问:我注意到两个实验之间存在微小的时间差异,那么时间会影响我们的记忆能力吗?

答:肯定会。学习和测试之间的时间越长,越会因为遗忘而表现得更差。在这个实验中,我们不再像以前那样观察学习后24小时时的效应,而是在学习之后(即在短暂的分心任务之后)立即进行了快速测试。而且我还用类似的实验测量了学习后一周时的记忆,我们对这种条件下的变化很感兴趣。

问:颜色会有影响吗?是否在研究中有目的地使用颜色来帮助记忆?

答:暂时还没有研究这方面,但我们会在下一个实验中使用颜色相关的提示。

问:这项研究的主要发现是什么?

答:我们发现,如果学生在学习新内容时能够更好地重新激活以前学过的信息,那么他们会更牢地记住这些信息。其他的有利因素包括这些信息符合先前的知识并且学生们表示他们有记住这些信息的意愿。

问:这对教师们有哪些启示?

答:教师应更频繁地回顾以前学过的信息,特别是与当时正在学的知识相关的信息。老师和学生们总认为一旦学到了某个知识,它便会牢牢地刻在大脑中,不再需要去关注它。然而,恰恰相反,经常检索以前学过的信息(也称为记忆提取)很有必要的。我们还发现,提取记忆有助于连接新旧知识并形成知识体系。

问:您的研究结果有什么更大的启示?

答:记忆是一个连续而流畅的概念,它从来都不是僵化的,在教育方面更不该认为记忆是一成不变的。因此,我们应该经常重温记忆,不仅是为了强化和修饰,更是为了将记忆与新学到的信息联系起来。

问:这个领域未来有哪些发展(例如大学课程设置、研究进展、循证政策)?

答:(长期)记忆的认知(神经)科学对于教育实践的影响力是巨大的。如何最好地存储记忆?这个问题涵盖了所有的科目,但是在教育实践中我们没能将记忆的工作原理运用彻底。我们每天都在学习新事物,因此我十分希望能够将记忆的原理应用到实际生活中。

摘要:In everyday life and in education, we continuously build and structure our knowledge. Successful knowledge construction is suggested to happen through reactivation of previously learned information during new learning. This reactivation is presumed to lead to integration of old and new memories and strengthen long-term retention. Additionally, congruency with prior knowledge is shown to enhance subsequent memory. However, it is unknown how subjective reactivation and congruency jointly influence learning in an educational context. In two experiments, we investigated this question using an AB-AC inference paradigm where students were asked to first study an AB (word-picture) and then an AC-association (word-description). BC-associations were either congruent or incongruent and were linked by a common, unknown word (A). During AC-learning, participants were instructed to actively reactivate B (the picture) and report their subjective reactivation strength. Participants were first-year university students studying either psychology or family studies and the stimuli consisted of new information from their curricula. We expected that both reactivation and congruency would enhance subsequent associative memory for the inferred BC-association. This was assessed by cueing participants with C (the description) and asking to freely describe the associated picture. Results show a significant enhancement of both B-reactivation and congruency on associative memory scores in both experiments. Additionally, subjective meta-memory measures exhibited the same effect. These outcomes, showing beneficial effects of both reactivation and congruency on memory formation, can be of interest to educational practice, where effectively building knowledge through reactivation is imperative for success.

阅读论文全文请访问:https://www.nature.com/articles/s41539-018-0027-8

期刊介绍:npj Science of Learning( https://www.nature.com/npjscilearn/) is the first journal to bring together the findings of neuroscientists, psychologists, and education researchers to understand how the brain learns. It connects neuroscientists and psychologists with teachers and policymakers. A deep understanding of learning requires the integration of findings from several levels of analysis: from cellular to behavioral, in animal models and humans, in the laboratory and in the classroom. Through cross-disciplinary interactions, this combined knowledge can then be used to revolutionise learning, memory, and education.

来源:npj Science of Learning